London - Premier League clubs splashed out almost £130 million on agents' fees last year in a 15 million increase on the previous 12 months.
Liverpool spent the most of any club as they paid out £14.3 million to the sport's middle men over the last two transfer windows, according to figures released by the Premier League on Monday.
The second highest spenders were Manchester United (£13.8m), followed by local rivals Manchester City (£12.4m) with the total reaching £129.86 million for the year ending September 30.
Chelsea and Arsenal both spent £11.9 million, while at the other end of the scale newcomers Watford paid £1.6 million.
Fees are not just paid to agents when transfers happen, but also when players sign new contracts.
During the period in question, there were 172 inbound transfers and loans in the Premier League, 542 new or improved contracts and 573 outbound transfers and loans - a total of 1,287 transactions, all of which could have led to an agent's fee being paid.
The total spent by the 24 Championship clubs was £26.1 million.
The biggest payers in the second tier were Cardiff (£2.8m), Fulham (£2.7m), QPR and Reading (both £2.3m).
Further down the leagues, third tier Bury and fourth tier Accrington Stanley and Hartlepool did not pay a single penny to agents.