The German driver won the 28-lap 'sprint' race for Prema Racing after starting from pole position in a reverse grid race. He had finished eighth in Saturday’s full-length feature race.
Schumacher, who is a member of Ferrari’s driver academy, finished 1.5 seconds ahead of Honda-backed Nobuharu Matsushita of Carlin. His previous best result was fourth at the Austrian Grand Prix in June.
"Amazing", he said afterwards.
"The car was great and thanks to the team for that. It wasn't easy, but I am just really happy."
Schumacher is in his first season of Formula Two, the main feeder category of racing for Formula One.