The 30-year-old has been struggling with a knee problem, and although chief selector Courtney Browne admitted his fast bowling may be hampered, he said his lower-order hitting could prove crucial.
Russell takes the place of Kemar Roach, who was ruled out of the series with a back injury.
"We believe Russell will add value to the squad," said former Windies wicket-keeper Browne.
"We are well aware that although Andre's bowling may be limited due to a knee problem, his tremendous batting ability to power the ball in the back end of the game will be an asset to the team."
The five-match series is level at 1-1 heading into Monday's third ODI in Grenada.
The Windies' performances in the opening two matches and their preceding 2-1 Test series victory have raised hopes that they could be surprise title challengers at this year's World Cup in England and Wales, which starts on May 30.