Nottingham - England's Stuart Broad became the first bowler to take a Test hat-trick at Trent Bridge as India's progress was checked spectacularly in the second Test on Saturday.
Yet at the end of a dramatic second day, India were still 43 runs ahead as England closed on 24 for one in their second innings.
Broad took five wickets for no runs in 16 balls on his way to Test-best figures of six for 46 in 24.1 overs.
His haul also saw him become the latest bowler to deprive Sachin Tendulkar of his 100th international hundred.
India were indebted to Rahul Dravid's elegantly constructed 117 - his 34th Test century, equalling the record of fellow India great Sunil Gavaskar and his second in as many matches after his 103 not out during England's 196-run first Test win at Lord's.
It looked as if India would build a commanding first innings lead until the advent of the new ball in the day's final session with the tourists 258 for four off 80 overs.
Yuvraj Singh, playing his first Test in over a year, had played well for his 62, after being dropped by Kevin Pietersen on four, and helped Dravid add 128 for the fifth wicket.
But he fended at a good length delivery from Broad, backing up his 64 on Friday with the ball, and was caught behind.
Broad then transformed 267 for five into 273 for six to start his hat-trick when India captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni wafted outside off stump and was caught at second slip by James Anderson.
Next ball Harbhajan Singh was lbw, South African umpire Marais Erasmus raising his finger even though replays showed the batsman had got an inside-edge onto his pad.
But, because of Indian objections to ball-tracking technology, there are no lbw reviews this series so Harbhajan had to go.
However, there was no doubt when Broad then clean bowled Praveen Kumar to become the first England bowler to take a Test hat-trick since Ryan Sidebottom achieved the feat against New Zealand in Hamilton in 2007/08.
It was also the first ever Test hat-trick against India.
Broad ended the innings by having Ishant Sharma taken by Ian Bell at short leg as India were bowled out for 288 - a first innings lead of 67 runs.
Broad's fourth five wickets in a Test innings haul surpassed his previous best of six for 91 against Australia at Headingley two years ago.
Broad, the son of former Test opener Chris, was only the 12th England cricketer in 134 years of Test cricket to take a hat-trick and the first bowler from any country to achieve the feat at Trent Bridge.
In the midst of this stunning collapse, Dravid, second only to Tendulkar in Test cricket's list of all-time run scorers, was the ninth man out when an uppercut off Tim Bresnan flew straight to Alastair Cook at third man.
Dravid, opening the innings after Gautam Gambhir was ruled out because of an elbow injury, batted for over six hours and faced 235 balls with 15 fours.
Previously, Tendulkar, who came in and walked out to a standing ovation, fell for 16 to his sixth ball after lunch when he edged a cut off Broad, to England captain Andrew Strauss at first slip.
The departure of Tendulkar, whose 51 Test hundreds and 48 in one-day internationals are both world records, left India 119 for three with Dravid then 44 not out.
There was still time before stumps for England to lose Cook before Strauss and Bell, batting at No 3 after Jonathan Trott suffered a shoulder injury, saw the hosts through to the close.